A new report from the Texas Freedom Network warns that some public schools in Texas are teaching religion. Not all religions, but the Bible-loving, apocalypse-watching, evolution-denying type of conservative evangelical Protestantism.
How do these public schools justify it? According to the TFN report, public schools fold these sectarian doctrines into their Bible courses. Public-school courses about the Bible are explicitly constitutional. US Supreme Court Justice Tom Clark made very clear in his majority opinion in Abington Township v. Schempp (1963) that public schools can teach the Bible, if they did so in a non-devotional way. As Clark specified,
“Nothing we have said here indicates that such study of the Bible or of religion, when presented objectively as part of a secular program of education, may not be effected consistently with the First Amendment.”
However, the TFN report argues that many of the Texas school districts are using Bible classes to teach religious doctrine, including the notion that the Bible demands a young earth. The report’s author, Mark A. Chancey of Southern Methodist University, reports that the courses are generally poorly taught, with low academic rigor, by underprepared teachers.
Professor Chancey includes excerpts from some of the teaching materials. In the Dalhart Independent School District, for example, one student information sheet included the following information:
“Since God is perfect and infallible, an inspired book is absolutely infallible and errorless in its facts and doctrines as presented in the original manuscript” (pg. 28).
In the Bible courses of Lazbuddie, Texas, students will read the following:
“We should have an understanding of what happened in Noah’s day if we are to know when the coming of our Lord is near. What are the similarities between the days of Noah and the days preceding the coming of Jesus Christ (Matthew 24:37-39)?” (pg. 32)
As Chancey points out, these doctrines are intensely sectarian. They teach a specific interpretation of the Bible as eternally true. Students in these public school classes would be told that the doctrines of conservative evangelical Protestantism are the correct and only interpretation of the Bible.
Are we shocked?
We shouldn’t be.
Here’s why not:
First of all, the numbers of schools and students involved is very small. Professor Chancey found 57 districts plus three charter schools who taught Bible courses in 2011-2012, a small percentage of the 1037 districts in Texas. Not all of these districts taught the Bible in such heavy-handed sectarian ways. And of the districts that reported their student numbers, only three had more than fifty students enrolled in Bible class. Six districts had fewer than five students in Bible (pg. 5).
Second, the practice of teaching sectarian religion in public-school Bible classes has a long and surprisingly uncontroversial history. As I explored in my 1920s book, while public attention was focused on anti-evolution laws, between 1919 and 1931 eleven states quietly passed mandatory Bible-reading laws for public schools.
Finally, even after the anti-Bible SCOTUS ruling in 1963, many public schools simply continued the practice. As political scientists Kenneth Dolbeare and Philip Hammond found in their survey of schools in a Midwestern state, the Supreme Court rulings against public-school Bible reading made absolutely no difference in school practice. Where students had read the Bible before, they continued to do so, without raising any controversy.
So Professor Chancey’s findings that a few students in a few public schools in Texas learn a sectarian interpretation of the Bible should come as no surprise. As Chancey notes, similar Bible classes go on in several other states as well (pg. v). Moreover, as political scientists Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer have convincingly argued, public school teachers usually teach ideas that are locally uncontroversial. In some places, that means teaching creationism as science. In others, it means teaching the Bible as history.